World Facts Index > Australia
Amazingly diverse and stunningly beautiful, Hobart sits at the foot of Mt Wellington and on the banks of the Derwent River. A city of contrasts, and Australia's smallest and most southerly city, Hobart offers sophisticated nightlife and World Heritage wilderness within a geographically compact area. Settled by the British in 1803,
Hobart's convict heritage remains evident in the architecture, with many unspoiled Georgian and Victorian buildings. An increased demand for inner-city living has seen recent growth of townhouse and apartment-style developments.
Central Hobart and the Queen's Domain
Here, the ambience of yesteryear is blended with today's conveniences. Stroll around the business district and enjoy the charms of Cat and Fiddle Arcade's animated clock, or visit the oldest theatre in Australia. To the north lie the Botanical Gardens and Government House. In close proximity is the sporting centre of Hobart, the Queen's
Domain, home of the aquatic, tennis and athletics centres.
The Waterfront and Salamanca
Dominant in early days, the waterfront has recently enjoyed a resurgence of popularity. Many sandstone buildings, such as Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery and Parliament House, reflect the area's historical roots. This is a popular dining and nightlife area with sidewalk cafes and restaurants intermingled with galleries, craft and gift
shops. Antarctic Adventure and Time Warp House, both popular attractions, are located here. On Saturday, Salamanca Place transforms into the legendary Market. Constitution Dock is the finishing point for sailors in the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race and the Gasworks Village features Australia's only commercial whisky distillery.
A short walk from Salamanca is this historic suburb, originally home to the whalers and mariners of Hobart Town. Original charm remains as tiny cottages and grand mansions interweave into one enchanting suburb. Many of the houses in this slice of history are National Trust listed and are fine examples of sandstone building. Whilst largely
residential, the area also offers a myriad of antique shops, restaurants, cafes and pubs, and some exquisitely restored accommodation.
Bushwalkers and photographers are rewarded by the views from the summit of Hobart's famous backdrop. A great way to explore the mountain is by foot on one of its many tracks. Snow is commonplace in winter, and possible in summer. To warm up, call in for a drink at Australia's oldest brewery, Cascade where the beer is made using water from
the mountain. Nearby are the magnificent Woodstock Gardens blooming with colour and fragrance.
The Kingborough area includes towns such as Kingston, Margate, and Snug. At Woodbridge discover all the undersea world has to offer at the Marine Discovery Centre. A ferry from Kettering across the D'Entrecasteaux Channel will take you to beautiful Bruny Island, where you will encounter rainforest and wetland areas, sandy beaches, and
native wildlife. Here is a favourite holiday destination for Tasmanians keen to take advantage of pursuits such as fishing, diving, swimming and even camel riding.
Waterways, wilderness, arts and crafts feature prominently in the Huon. The majority of Tasmania's fruit is produced here and roadside stalls offer bargains. Access the Hartz Mountains National Park with its Alpine heathlands, dolerite ranges and glacier carved lakes is through this valley. The Park has the distinction of being the
closest World Heritage Area to any capital city in Australia. Hastings Caves with their magnificent limestone formations are also located nearby.
Once a working class area, North Hobart has been transformed into a gastronomic delight with its restaurant strip offering a diverse selection of cuisines. Further north, Glenorchy is home to venues such as the Entertainment Centre and the Showgrounds. Elwick Racecourse hosts The Hobart Cup, Tasmania's premier horse race. Chocoholics
beware - the Cadbury Chocolate Factory is near, as is the miniature Swiss Village of Alpenrail.
Journey across the Tasman Bridge to the Eastern Shore and Bellerive Oval,, home of international cricket matches. Bellerive is another riverside suburb, and meandering around Bellerive Village is a boardwalk that provides an idyllic scene for a summer Jazz Festival. This side of the Derwent features some of Hobart's best beaches including
Seven Mile, Clifton and Carlton. This is also the gateway to the beautiful Tasman Peninsula, and the Port Arthur Historic Site.
East Coast and Richmond
Spectacular coastlines and pristine beaches are commonplace on this coast where pursuits such as swimming, fishing, surfing, diving, sailing, walking and horseriding are popular. Tasmania's cool climate is ideal for winemaking and both the East Coast and Richmond are premier locations for vineyards which welcome cellar door sales and
tastings. Richmond is a truly historic village with Australia's oldest bridge, oldest Catholic Church and oldest postal building. It has retained the charm of a bygone era with slate and sandstone buildings, and there are many craft shops and galleries.
North lie the golden hopfields. Vineyards, trout fishing and nature reserves are all on offer. You can even feed the fish at the oldest southern hemisphere hatchery at Salmon Ponds. Tasmania is one of the last temperate wilderness areas in the world and there is no better illustration than at scenic Mt Field National Park with its
breathtaking waterfalls, ski fields and excellent walking tracks through rainforests, many ideal for the novice bushwalker. The South West World Heritage area lies further to the west.
The grand old city of Hobart offers both locals and visitors a unique combination of a leisurely and laid-back lifestyle with striking landscapes, unspoiled wilderness and clean waterways. This city will charm with its beauty and delight with the warmth of its welcome.
History of Hobart
A handsome city flanked by the tranquil waters of the Derwent River, Hobart has a spectacular backdrop in Mt Wellington. Amongst the bustle of a modern city are National Trust, classified buildings, ensuring the preservation of much old-world charm and a palpable sense of history.
In 1642 Abel Tasman made landfall while seeking trading opportunities for the Dutch East India Company. He named the region Van Diemen's Land after a high-ranking official in the Company. Much later, this was changed to Tasmania in honour of the explorer.
Between 1772 and 1793 Bruni d'Entrecasteaux and Huon de Kermadec explored the coast naming the Huon River and Bruny Island, Captain Bligh, of mutiny on the Bounty fame, and Captain James Cook anchored in Adventure Bay, which can be seen from the Resolution Road. An explorer by the name of John Hayes named the Derwent River.
The original inhabitants of Tasmania had been indigenous to the island for more than 20,000 years when Europeans arrived. They greeted explorers with distant tolerance until it became evident that their land was under threat, and then retaliated. The Governor reacted in turn, with an order sanctioning forcible action. Permission was
granted to local settlers to shoot Aborigines on sight. Sanctioned killing and programmes of relocation, combined with disease and the destruction of traditional hunting grounds, led to the tragic annihilation of the Aboriginal population. In this dark history, the last full-blooded Aborigine, Truganini, died in 1876.
In 1803, afraid of the interest the French were showing, a British party was sent to establish a colony. The settlement was to be called Hobart, named after Robert Hobart, the British Secretary of State for the Colonies. A site was chosen on the eastern bank of the river where the town of Risdon now stands. At the same time, Captain David
Collins was sent to Port Phillip Bay in Victoria, but quickly decided that the place was unsuitable for settlement and pressed on to Van Diemen's Land, arriving in 1804. He immediately took charge and moved everybody to Sullivan's Cove, where he founded Hobart Town. The settlers were constantly under threat from starvation and raids by
bushrangers. It was soon found that wheat thrived in the areas around Richmond and Sorell, and by 1817, excess produce was being exported to Sydney.
The worst criminals, repeat offenders and unmanageable prisoners were sent to penal settlements in Van Diemen's Land. It was the perfect penal colony, because a huge labour force was required to establish the settlement and inaccessibility and wildness ensured isolation and security. The worst of the worst were sent to Port Arthur Penal
Settlement, established in 1830. Escape was virtually impossible as very few convicts could swim, and sharks were present in the surrounding waters. The narrow isthmus at Eaglehawk Neck was easily guarded by dogs and by strategically positioned military outposts, an example of which still stands at the Eaglehawk Neck Historic Site. Other
sites steeped in incarceration history are the Richmond Gaol and Island Produce Building, originally used as a women's prison. It was not until 1853 that the transportation of convicts ceased.
From 1820 the township blossomed from a mixture of settlers' huts and rural land into an ordered and well-planned town. The area known as Queens Domain, which today includes the Botanic Gardens, was commissioned for the Governor. A number of mansions were built around this precinct, including Runnymede in New Town (circa 1836). New
industries such as the Cascade Brewery (1824), with its "wedding cake" Victorian fa├žade were also established, and in 1837 Australia's oldest theatre, the Theatre Royal was built.
Named after the battery of guns built on the point in 1818, this historic precinct was originally farmland, but by 1850 the area developed into a mariners' village, with shipowners living side by side with sailors and artisans. In recent years historic homes in this area have been restored as tourist accommodation. The Gattonside Historic
Bed and Breakfast (circa 1885) Harbour House, Battery Point Guest House and Ascot are prime examples. Quince Cottage on Arthur Circus is a lovingly restored mariners' cottage and the the Shipwright Arms is still used as a public house. Restaurants are also popular in the area, with Alexanders of Lenna exuding elegance and charm and
Kelley's Seafood Restaurant housed in an old sailmakers' cottage.
In the colony a flourishing sea trade and ship building industry revolved around warehouses on Salamanca Place. These buildings, built between 1835 and 1860, represent the best sandstone Georgian warehouses remaining in Australia. A visit to galleries such as Salamanca Arts Centre, Handmark Gallery or Artasan, and fine dining
institutions, such as Panache, give the visitor a view of the warehouses from the inside. Salamanca Market offers an equally impressive view of the exterior. The docklands have always been a Hobart focal point, originally used for trade, and are now the heart of the city's festivals and celebrations. Constitution Dock is the hub of the
Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race festivities (first raced in 1945-1946) and is also a venue for the Hobart Summer Festival.
The twentieth century
The depression hit Tasmania hard, but a thriving mining industry made it bearable. Despite difficult economic times, new enterprises such as Cadbury's Chocolate Factory were established. In
1964 the Tasman Bridge was opened connecting both banks of the river and in 1973 Australia's first casino, Wrest Point, was built. The magnificent beauty of the south-west wilderness was added to the World Heritage List in 1983, making Tasmania the greenest Australian state with over 40% of its area devoted to parks. In 1995 the
Aboriginal Land Act was passed, returning twelve significant sites back to the descendants of the original Aboriginal inhabitants.
A visitor to Hobart can expect to meet history face to face. It is there in the stones and mortar used to create it. Take a walk through Battery Point, visit Richmond or just wander the main streets to be transported to another time.
Copyright 2005 worldfacts.us