World Facts Index > United States > Nashville

People who visit the Music City for the first time are always surprised by the lack of public transportation. Like many large cities in the Mid-South, Nashville has spread out, taking over land from plantations and farms, and now covers a large area that limits your ability to walk from one district to another. Granted, there are a few public bus routes and many taxi companies, but Nashville is a lot like Los Angeles, at least in one respect, people here like to drive. There are more parking lots downtown than office buildings, and yet parking remains a premium. If you arrive by plane, your first step should be to rent a car. Don't depend on public transportation, it's just not a dependable or convenient option.

The one exception to this overriding need for a car is if you plan on spending most of your time downtown. It's a short walk from tourist-friendly Second Avenue to famed Printers' Alley and all parts in between.

Five Boroughs

There are five distinct districts to the city, much like the boroughs of New York, only smaller.

Begin your visit Downtown and visit the Arcade for lunch. Next, stroll along Second Avenue and take in the sights. Downtown is famous for its music venues, and every storefront is part retail outlet and part performance hall. There are more specialty shops and cafes than you can visit in a week and each features some kind of live music. Nowhere else can you shop for shoes while listening to a local band play its version of Hank Williams' "Your Cheatin' Heart."

In the early days of the city, all the printers were located in Printer's Alley. This section of downtown takes up three city blocks between Fourth and Fifth Avenues. Today there aren't many printers turning out playbills and newspapers, but there are museums and shops for visitors to explore.

Capitalizing on the influx of tourists, a number of theme restaurants have opened downtown. From Planet Hollywood to the Nascar Café there are enough expensive cheeseburgers for everyone.

The West End of Nashville is home to Music Row. If you have any interest in country music or the music industry, this is where you should spend at least a day. Every major recording label in the United States has an office here.

You won't see anything like the imposing Capitol Records building in Los Angeles. This is Nashville, and record companies here work out of renovated homes and warehouses. The atmosphere is relaxed and inviting, which is the reason a lot of artists are choosing Nashville to record their next project. Some of the best recording studios in the nation share real estate with the record companies on this famous street. Stand outside Emerald Studios or Quad Sound and see what famous musical artist walks out the door.

Two blocks from Music Row on West End Avenue lies Elliston Place. This is one of Nashville's trendy neighborhoods. Small homes and cafes typify the tenants of the area. And then there's the Elliston Place Rock Block, a block-long section of Elliston Avenue that is home to six of the loudest nightclubs in town. This is not the place to go if you are interested in quiet conversation. This is where you go to listen to great country music and party into the wee hours of the night.

The West End is also home to Vanderbilt University, one of the nation's finest private universities and the alma mater of Vice President Albert Gore, Jr. The lush and expansive campus provides much-needed green space in Nashville's West End area, as well as opportunities for visitors to enjoy collegiate sporting events, art museums and symphonic concerts.

South of the Music City lies the suburb of Brentwood. This is where the affluent live and where corporations have been relocating over the last decade, escaping the congestion of downtown traffic. Brentwood offers the best shopping in town with two large shopping malls and a number of factory outlet centers. Brentwood also suffers from poor public transportation. You are lucky to even find a bus, much less catch a ride on one. This is definitely a place to drive your car.

A little further South is the historic town of Franklin. One of the oldest towns in Middle Tennessee, Franklin is famous for its numerous antique malls and neighborhood cafes. A drive down Main Street is like driving through a Norman Rockwell painting. This is typical small town USA, filled with history and charm and friendly folks who are always willing to offer directions or tell a tall tale or two. After 200 years, Franklin has retained its quiet, Southern charm.

If you arrive in Nashville via the International Airport, you will be in the Opryland area. For many, this is the final destination, and with good reason. For decades, the district around the Opryland theme park kept the city of Nashville alive. The Music City owes a great deal to the now defunct amusement park that was once home to the Grand Ole Opry, the world renowned country music venue. The Opry drew millions of visitors every year and the area surrounding it grew up fast. Today, the theme park has been turned into the largest shopping center in the South, Opry Mills. The Opry still stands and still offers the greatest in Country Music entertainment. Dining in and around this area can be exquisite at the New Orleans Manor or adventurous at 101st Airborne.

History of Nashville

Mysterious Beginnings

According to archaeologists, the first residents of what is now known as Nashville were Mississippian Indians. This agricultural society left behind significant evidence of their existence, including exquisitely painted pottery. The Mississippian Indians called this region their home from 1000 to 1400 CE and then mysteriously vanished. Historians and archaeologists are divided on the issue of their disappearance. Some believe the culture evolved into a nomadic society, and simply moved to another region. Others believe they fell victim to a plague of some type or were massacred by another Indian tribe, such as the Cherokee or Chickasaw who would later call this area their home.

Whatever the case, the disappearance of this indigenous farming community was strangely prophetic. The city of Nashville was destined for greatness, but only after an arduous journey of societal evolution. Agriculture would be king in early Nashville. The agricultural society would then be torn by war and Nashville would be destroyed. After rebuilding the city, the citizens would turn to heavy industry to survive. Eventually, industry would fail and the new king in town would be Country Music. It's a very interesting story, and it's a story the people of Nashville have not forgotten. It is woven into their culture, their art, and their lifestyle.

Of Forts and Fur Traders

The first European visitors to the area were French fur traders, who arrived around 1720. These traders prospered along the banks of the Cumberland River. The first English settlers ventured here in 1779. Led by resourceful pioneer James Robertson, they built a primitive fort and named it Nashborough after General Francis Nash, a hero in the United States Revolutionary War. (A reproduction of that first settlement can be seen at Fort Nashborough.) The new town was a part of the state of North Carolina, and soon became a hotbed of activity. Some 60 Families, led by John Donelson, moved southwest from the Colonies and began farming the fertile soil of the Cumberland Plateau. In 1784 the town changed its name to Nashville, and in 1796 Nashville and the surrounding area broke away from North Carolina and declared statehood. Tennessee became the 16th state and Nashville was its capital.

A Young Nation is Divided

In 1860 there were rumors that Southern states were planning secession from the United States. Southern plantation owners depended heavily on the slave labor. The Northern states condemned slavery and demanded the government abolish the practice. Tennessee, a border state, was reluctant to join the secessionist movement and voted to remain loyal to the Union. However, pressure from neighboring states, along with a strong desire to determine their own destiny, caused the citizens to reconsider. When the first shots of the war were fired at Charleston, South Carolina, the decision was made to join the Confederacy. In 1861, the Confederate States of America, or CSA, was formed and elected Jefferson Davis as their President. The divisive war lasted four years and left an indelible mark on Nashville's history.

Fort Donelson was constructed on the banks of the Cumberland River to protect the city of Nashville from Northern aggression. Fort Henry was erected further west, on the Tennessee River, to defend Middle Tennessee. The Union armies struck with surprising force, and the small band of Confederate soldiers was no match for the better equipped, more experienced Northern troops. Both forts fell in only three days. Confederate forces retreated and the mayor of Nashville surrendered the city on February 25, 1862. The Union wasted no time in reclaiming the city and set about the task of building forts of its own. Fort Negley, the largest, was the center of military operations in the Western theatre. Andrew Johnson was appointed by President Lincoln as governor of Tennessee and was charged with reestablishing the loyalty of its citizens to the Union. Most Tennesseans were reluctant to pledge loyalty, but were convinced by threats from Johnson that failure to pledge loyalty would result in loss of property and freedom.

The Union occupation wasn't a quiet one. Confederate troops routinely raided the city and attempted to regain control. On December 15, 1864, a final campaign was staged to recapture the city. The Battle of Nashville was fought for two days and resulted in victory for the Union army and the near devastation of the proud city. General Hood and his Confederate soldiers were forced to retreat and the city of Nashville was decidedly in the hands of the Union army.

Governor Johnson was elected Vice President in 1865 and left Tennessee for Washington, DC. After the assassination of President Lincoln, Johnson assumed the presidency and saw the war end on April 9, 1865. The business of reconstruction kept the citizens of Nashville busy for many years. As the Union armies returned to their homes, Nashville turned its attention to reclaiming its Southern heritage and found support from its neighboring states. The United States was one nation again, but the wounds would take decades to heal, and the scars would last even longer.

New Beginnings

As the city of Nashville was rebuilt, the population grew once again. Riverboats and barges chugged up and down the Cumberland opening up the city to trade. Industry developed and the farming communities died away. Manufacturing goods, not growing crops, was the new source of commerce. By the beginning of World War II, the manufacturing industry was booming, and when the United States entered the war, the city retooled its plants to build military equipment and artillery. After the war, heavy industry saw a decline. Financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies took the lead in building the city's wealth. Today, Nashville depends on it's service and tourism economies, rather than manufacturing.

The Music City is Born

In the 1930s, Nashville began playing a new song. Country music was a hybrid of folk music with European roots and African American spirituals. Fiddler and songwriter Roy Acuff was the first real country music star and hosted the wildly popular live radio broadcast,The Grand Ole Opry. Country music gained popularity throughout the country and people everywhere tuned in to NBC radio to hear the latest tunes. The 1950s were the real heyday of country music. Artists like Hank Williams wrote songs about life, love and loss and the message connected with listeners. The recording studios on famed Music Row were filled with aspiring singers and songwriters hoping to make their mark. By 1960 the city was earning a reputation as the center of the Country, Pop, and Blues recording industry and became known as the Music City. Today, the early pioneers are remembered in the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, which also features exhibits on new country mega-stars like Garth Brooks and Shania Twain, who found their success right here in Nashville.

Embracing the Future, Remembering the Past

Today, Nashville is a vibrant city. It is the home of Fortune 500 companies like First Tennessee Bank and telecommunications giant Bell South. It is also home to professional sports franchises like the National Football League's Tennessee Titans and the National Hockey League's Nashville Predators. Nashville's growing arts community has gained national recognition with the works of Norris Hall and it will always be the Home of Country Music.

With all its success, Nashville has not forgotten its roots. Throughout the city you will find reminders of the past. Museums like the Oscar Farris Agricultural Museum recall the city's primitive beginnings. The Hermitage, home of President Andrew Jackson, is a memorial to one of the nation's more controversial leaders. Fort Negley is one of the few remaining reminders of the heinous battle that virtually destroyed the city during the United States Civil War.

Nashville is all grown up now. The small town has become a big city. Nevertheless, it has never lost that quiet, Southern way. Things are done differently here. People still stop to say "Good Morning" and enjoy a cup of coffee on the front porch of a neighbor. A handshake is still a binding contract, in most cases, and hospitality is a way of life.

The Weather

  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg. High 45 50 61 70 78 86 88 88 82 72 60 50
Avg. Low 26 28 38 47 56 64 68 67 61 48 38 30
Mean 36 40 50 58 68 76 78 78 72 60 50 41
Avg. Precip. 3.6 in 3.8 in 4.9 in 4.4 in 4.9 in 3.6 in 4.0 in 3.5 in 3.5 in 2.6 in 4.1 in 4.6 in


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