World Facts Index > United States > DenverDenver is a geographically isolated city sitting exactly one mile above sea level and over 600 lonely miles from the closest major city. Concealed from the west by bold foothills and towering 14,000-foot peaks, protected to the east by an expansive and unforgiving high desert terrain, it is a place where everybody seems to be from somewhere else. Today, modern-day pioneers flock to Denver for world-class skiing and biking, serene hiking, and intense rock climbing. They travel here from far and wide to imbibe famous microbrews, stand in the humbling presence of massive peaks, or find prosperity in a booming computer and telecommunications economy. The end result: blended but cohesive neighborhoods, brimming with a diverse collection of cultures and exuding character and charm.
Anchored by Civic Center Park and the 16th Street Mall, a mile-long, tree-lined pedestrian promenade, downtown is the perfect place to begin exploring the Mile High City. Downtown's vital mix of government, entertainment, business, and sport make Denver's central business district the envy of the West. Take a tour of the Colorado State Capitol Building, where the eighteenth step places you exactly one mile above sea level, or stroll through the nation's best collection of Native American materials at the Denver Art Museum. Shop away at the Denver Pavilions and Tabor Center or take in a Broadway show at one of the eight theaters comprising the Denver Performing Arts Complex. Spend a day wandering the shores of Colorado's Ocean Journey or seek adventure at Six Flags Elitch Gardens. After a long day of sightseeing, kickback in a brewpub and enjoy a microbrew, or treat yourself to a fine dining experience at one of downtown's excellent restaurants.
Historic Lower Downtown
The ghosts of the red light district of Denver's gold rush may still haunt the streets of lower downtown, but they are not alone anymore. The area, termed LoDo by locals, was virtually empty ten years ago. But since the opening of Coors Field, home to baseball's Colorado Rockies, the twenty-block district of 19th-century buildings is alive with energy and entertainment. The original commercial core of Denver underwent a major renovation and now sports a seemingly endless variety of trendy pubs, restaurants, nightclubs, shops, and luxurious loft apartments. Larimer Square, at the southern end of LoDo, occupies a portion of Denver's oldest street. Today, it radiates Victorian charm and bustles with delights such as Josephina's Restaurant and the eighties disco flashback, Lucky Star. The buildings, now occupied by upscale chains, including Morton's of Chicago, and Denver originals like the Wynkoop Brewing Company, have long histories as former brothels, saloons, and old-time general stores.
An eclectic residential district stretching east from downtown to City Park is home to Denver's famed Restaurant Row, a collection of elegant fine dining establishments, as well as a scattering of nightclubs and bars. It is also a great place to check out some of Denver's Victorian architecture and the impressive Cathedral of Immaculate Conception, a Romanesque masterpiece with towering, Gaudi-esque spires. A lively stretch of Colfax, Denver's longest and most eccentric avenue, wanders through Uptown. The area offers off-the-wall neighborhood bars, excellent ethnic cuisine, and the best in national music acts at the refurbished Ogden Theatre and Fillmore Auditorium. City Park, a beautiful legacy from the City Beautiful period, houses the Denver Zoo and the popular Denver Museum of Nature and Science.
Five Points/Curtis Park
Throughout Denver's illustrious history, Five Points and the Curtis Park district, northeast of downtown, has been a sanctuary for the African American community. Ever since Benny Hooper strolled into town in the 1920s and opened up his club/recreation center/hotel for black servicemen, the streets of Five Points have whispered jazz. Hooper's club underwent renovation a few years ago and reopened as the Casino Cabaret hosting some of the best jazz musicians in the country. The entire neighborhood is experiencing an urban renaissance as small businesses infiltrate the historic district and boost the economy. One of Denver's liveliest festivals, Juneteenth, fills the streets with laughter and frenzy at the dawn of each summer. Be sure to enjoy the best barbeque in town served up at M&D's.
Walking the diverse streets of Capitol Hill, you might actually feel the city's pulse pounding beneath your feet. Once the neighborhood of Denver's wealthiest citizens, their ancient Victorian mansions now stand alongside towering condos and apartment complexes. The area wears its decadent image with honor. Although activity clutters the streets at all hours of the night, the neighborhood is safe and friendly. Young hipsters brood along the same sidewalks that Neal Cassidy and Jack Kerouac treaded, searching for an evening fix of entertainment in one of the diverse array of clubs, coffeehouses, art houses, galleries, and bars. It is a great place to observe the way Denver moves through day-to-day life. The wealth of historical sightseeing includes the Molly Brown House and tours of the Governor's Mansion, which resides in south Capitol Hill in the ultra-trendy Governor's Park.
Cheesman Park/Congress Park
A diverse mix of ethnic, age, and income groups populate these old neighborhoods bordering Capitol Hill, barely a mile from downtown. The area serves as a hotbed for Denver's gay community and fashionable thirty-somethings. Cheesman Park, the former city graveyard, is now Denver's urban emerald. You'll find the best mountain views in the city on the park's central acropolis. The Denver Botanic Gardens occupies the East Side of the park and makes for a wonderful romantic stroll. The Congress Park vicinity encompasses Greek Town, a six-block section of Denver filled with eclectic festivities and animated diners.
This stylish district has some of Denver's best known attractions, including the beloved Tattered Cover Bookstore, and Denver's number one tourist attraction, the Cherry Creek Mall. The open air-shopping plaza across from the mall, Cherry Creek North, is a menagerie of upscale boutiques, art galleries, fine dining, and unique bars. It is great local gathering place on the weekend. The Cherry Creek Bike Trail runs behind the mall and is a good place to begin a journey downtown or to other destinations.
Residents of Denver are the leanest in the land and the active, healthy crowds are always running or pedaling around the verdant landscape of Washington Park. Volleyball games line the park lawns, and in-line thrill seekers and fierce road bikers put on dizzying displays around the park's bike path. But it also a great place to chat with locals and relax on a weekday afternoon. The surrounding neighborhood is one of Denver's most affluent, but the area is unpretentious and loaded with rare gems such as the hearty Italian restaurant, Carmine's On Penn.
Washington Park's wild southern neighbor is University Park, home of the University of Denver. The university area is a hot spot of cultural activity, and displays some of south Denver's finest architecture, including the Ritchie Center, a mammoth copper and sandstone structure with a bell tower bedecked in gold. From booming concerts at Magness Arena to mellow, folk gatherings at Swallow Hill, to pizza and pool at Anthony's, this neighborhood offers a little of something for everybody. South Pearl Street is a cozy little shopping spot and is home to the popular Japanese joint, Sushi Den.
Located on the western fringe of Denver, surrounded by the jagged hogback and a plethora of wide buttes, Golden (don't ever say it's a suburb) is a charming small town echoing Colorado's gold rush heritage. Home of the Coors Brewing Company and the Buffalo Bill's Museum, Golden is an excellent spot to experience a part of Western Americana. The locals have traded in their horses for mountain bikes, and the town boasts some of the best trail riding in the country at famed Apex Park and White Ranch Park. Take the kids to Heritage Square for a ride on the 19th century antique merry-go-round or a heart-pounding trip down the alpine slide.
History of DenverDenver's history as a boom and bust town began with the desire for a simple precious metal: gold. In 1858, a group of prospectors were exploring the Kansas Territory, which then encompassed what is now Colorado, and discovered piles of the almighty metal at the confluence of the Platte River and Cherry Creek. One of the prospectors, William Larimer, established Denver City in an area then populated by the Arapaho tribe, who camped along the banks of Cherry Creek while hunting and gathering. Over the next two years, a new gold fever penetrated the pulse of the eastern states. 100,000 hopefuls pioneered across the harsh landscape to the territory, seeking instant prosperity. The influx uprooted the Native Americans and forced them to move on. The settler population soared further, causing the federal government to create the Colorado Territory. So began Denver's first boom, inspiring its mythical image as a Wild West town ruled by material obsession.
In 1859, at the peak of the rush, Denver's first notable figure strolled into town with a vision well beyond the price of gold. William N. Byers moved to Denver from Ohio, via Omaha, and founded the Rocky Mountain News. Through the newspaper, he tried to calm the hysteria and instability associated with the gold rush and promoted settlement on the high desert frontier. Byers proceeded to create an illusion of Denver, proclaiming the city to be the "Queen City of the Plains" and the new steamboat capitol of the West, ready for a river full of industry. Unfortunately, the small, shallow Platte River couldn't live up to Byers' grand words. The ports of wealth never materialized, and the even smaller Cherry Creek soon declined into a cesspool of mining pollution. Byers, who also founded the city's Chamber of Commerce, might have gone on to a great career in politics. Sadly, his chances dissipated during an adulterous scandal, culminating in typical Wild West style, with a shooting in the middle of a downtown street.
In 1865, Denver City was deemed capital of the new Territory. In 1881, five years after Colorado gained statehood, it was chosen over Golden, Colorado Springs, and Boulder as the official capital. During this period, Denver blossomed rapidly. Railroad-borne business transformed a one-dimensional mining mecca into a more balanced industrial and agricultural "cow town." Even so, the city experienced its first bust in 1893, after the Silver Crash crippled Colorado's silver-producing economy. A tough ten-year depression followed. Despite the hardships of the times, city leaders managed to construct the beautiful neo-Classical Colorado State Capitol Building and the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. From 1904 until 1918, when the entire nation was in the process of revitalizing itself, energetic civic leader Robert Speer took Denver's mayoral reigns and vowed to create an "American Paris." During this era, known nationally as the City Beautiful period, Denver curbed its unchecked growth with a solid urban plan. Some of the city's most recognizable landmarks date from this time, including the City and County Building and Washington and City Parks. Speer conjured a four-part plan for city improvements, beginning with Civic Center Park. He wanted Denver to boast a beautiful city center with lush walkways and focal points of extravagant architecture. Thus, Civic Center Park, between the Colorado State Capitol Building and the entrance to downtown, is embellished with impressive gardens, a serene thoroughfare, and a Greek-style outdoor amphitheater. Speer also sought to bring shade to the desert. He initiated the planting of over 100,000 trees, creating numerous boulevards lined with oaks and elms. Through a prolonged effort, even the polluted Cherry Creek was transformed into a verdant greenway, and new mountain and city parks further enhanced the beauty of the area.
Speer faced harsh criticism for some of these projects, especially for the boulevard that bore his name and meandered from downtown to the country club district. But it was nothing compared to the wrath his successor, Benjamin F. Stapleton, faced for building Denver's first airport. Stapleton, notorious for his membership in the Ku Klux Klan, was captivated by flight. He strove to end the city's isolation on the plains by laying the foundation for Denver Municipal Airport in 1929. Critics went wild, calling the plan downright stupid, and saying the location was so far out east of the city that it might as well be in Kansas. Ultimately, the airport was a success. After the Great Depression of the 1930s, the city and Stapleton focused on the mountain parks, calling for the creation of a "rock garden" in the nearby hills. Years of diligent planning and painstaking construction carved the jagged red rocks into an intimate, natural amphitheater with impressive acoustics. The Red Rocks Amphitheatre continues to inspire awe in concertgoers and musicians alike.
The 1930s and 1940s also brought a military and federal government presence to Denver, with the opening of Lowry Air Force Base and the Denver Federal Center. This initiated a trend continuing over the next forty years. Denver and the Front Range became home to Fitzsimmon's Army Hospital, the Air Force Academy, and Buckley Air Field. Now, Denver supports the largest Federal employee population outside of Washington, DC.. As the Cold War progressed, Denver gained a high-tech military installation in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, as well as the infamous plutonium-producing Rocky Mountain Flats. Although these sites boosted Denver's economy and population, they have also caused an enormous amount of controversy. With the end of the Cold War, defense cuts have closed the majority of Colorado's major military sites.
During the 1950s, "black gold" struck the hearts of Denverites, sending the economy into another boom, and creating millionaires overnight. Oil companies from around the globe to set up shop in Denver, inspiring Mayor Quigg Newton to reevaluate the city's "cow town" persona. The city rode the oil boom long enough to use the steady flow of tax revenue to revitalize schools, institute cultural amenities, and reinvent the central business district. In 1969, the revitalization campaign led to the controversial decision to bulldoze Auraria, Denver's oldest and poorest neighborhood. Originally a separate township, Auraria was a rival to Denver City back in the gold rush days. The two entities eventually settled differences and merged into one, under the name of Denver. From the dust the wrecking crews, a beautiful urban educational center arose, known as the Auraria Campus. The area now holds three city colleges along with a collection of original neighborhood landmarks, including the Tivoli Brewing Company, St. Elizabeth's Church and St. Cajetan's Church.
The city then turned toward cleaning up rundown areas of downtown. This time, the money ran short. Dismantled lots sat vacant and overgrown until the early 1980's.
Another boom followed, this time bringing the towering icons of corporate wealth: skyscrapers. The new oil boom at last transformed the city into a modern metropolis, with immense highrises sprawling along the Front Range and a mobile population almost completely dependent upon the automobile. Unfortumatley, like everything else associated with the Mile High City's bipolar history, this boom was also bound to bust.
In the mid-1980s, the price of oil plummeted from $39 a barrel to $9, sending the city into a devastating recession. The downtown skyscrapers stood empty, and the central streets of the city soon resembled a ghost town. Much of the populace fled to better opportunities elsewhere.
Federico Pena, Denver's first Hispanic leader, fought tooth and nail to change the city's identity in the late 1980s. Pena reinstated the Chamber of Commerce and directed new funding into Denver's cultural institutions, including the Denver Zoo and the Denver Art Museum. Tourists were already passing though Denver in route to the world-class skiing in the mountains, but Pena wanted the town to offer more variety and substance to out-of-towners. Thus, the Mile High City began the slow process of washing away an unsightly industrial past in favor of the glitz associated with a tourist and service oriented town.
Perhaps Pena's greatest feat was paving the way for the construction of Denver International Airport. Pena's successor, Wellington Webb, Denver's first African American mayor, faced intense scrutiny over the airport site. Located in what is often termed "the middle of nowhere" by locals and tourists alike, the airport is one of the world's largest and is consistently one of the busiest.
Denver's shiny new look fueled yet another economic boom that ignited an urban renaissance under Mayor Webb's watchful eye. The city was awarded a major league baseball franchise in the early 1990s. Planners opted to build a new stadium in the heart of an old warehouse district, banking on the "If you build it, they will come" philosophy. New businesses, restaurants, and shops were enticed to restore many of the remaining historical structures in the area that had somehow survived the wrecking balls and years of vacancy. The end result: an upscale entertainment district called LoDo, cluttered with old buildings given a second or third chance at success and anchored by Coors Field, a beautifully designed, old-fashioned ballpark. Of course, the people came. So many, in fact, that developers infiltrated the area and transformed the old buildings into elegant lofts. The success of LoDo spilled into downtown and the surrounding areas, creating an infusion of inner growth. The promotion of luxurious urban living served as an antidote to some of the area's agressive suburban sprawl. Denver's population now soared at a rate comparable to that of its suburban rivals.
Denver emerged as a lively sports town and entertainment metropolis, attracting gaggles of tourists that never seemed to leave. They simply came to visit, fell in love with the mountain setting and prosperous city energy, and set up camp. In 1993, over 30,000 inhabitants of California flooded the Front Range, sending the population over two million and creating growth issues as rapid development took up former open space to house the new arrivals. This is widely known as the California immigration. New high-tech computer and telecommunication businesses also sought refuge in Denver's endless sunshine.
As the 1990s pushed on, the city continued to focus inward, moving the beloved historical amusement park, Elitch Gardens, to the central Platte Valley just south of LoDo. In 1999, Colorado's Ocean Journey, an interactive aquarium, opened in the central Platte Valley. The same year saw the opening of the Pepsi Center, a new brick and glass structure radiating the historic charm of LoDo. The center is the home to the Denver Nuggets and the Colorado Avalanche.
Denver's boom and bust cycle has allowed the city to continually reinvent itself, fluctuating from a gold town to a cow town, from an oil town to a tourist town. With each change the city history becomes more complex and vibrant. No one can predict when the next bust will come, but Denver will most likely continue to find new and unique ways to propel itself forward.
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