World Facts Index > United States > ChattanoogaFrom its humble beginnings as a landing on the Tennessee River, the city founded by Cherokee leader John Ross has seen tremendous growth in population and geography. Each district of the city has its own history and atmosphere. From the tourist-friendly plazas of the Downtown Riverfront to the breathtaking beauty of Lookout Mountain, Chattanooga is comprised of distinct communities, each lending itself to the personality and character of a sleepy Southern town that suddenly grew up. Public transportation is surprisingly good, thanks to a fleet of environmentally friendly electric buses, and air travel to and from the city is a delight via the newly renovated and redesigned Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport.
Unlike many cities in the United States, Chattanooga's downtown enjoys a vibrant nightlife. More and more people are returning downtown to live, work and play and with good reason. After a 10-year revitalization, downtown is the place to be. Over 100 shops and restaurants, dozens of music venues and museums, deluxe accommodations, and extensive public transportation make the area between the Riverfront and Lookout Mountain attractive to visitors and residents.
The catalyst for the resurgence of tourism and economic growth downtown is the riverfront and the Tennessee Aquarium. Once an abandoned industrial river port, the banks of the Tennessee River now welcome people, not barges. The Tennessee Aquarium is the largest freshwater aquarium in the country and features sea and land animals indigenous to the Tennessee River. Over 2 million people visited the aquarium in 1990, its first year of operation. Today, the aquarium, along with its state-of-the-art IMAX 3D theater, attracts 1 million visitors each year.
A visit downtown isn't all about fish and 3D movies. The famed Chattanooga Choo Choo provides visitors a glimpse of the past when the romance of the railroad lured men and women away from their homes to embark on adventure. Dine in style aboard one of the luxurious dining cars, tour the Chattanooga rail terminal museum or enjoy a meal served by singing waiters in the Station House Restaurant. BellSouth Park is the brand new baseball stadium for the Chattanooga Lookouts Baseball Club. The Lookouts, AA affiliate of the Major League Baseball Cincinnati Reds, began the 2000 season in their new home high atop Hawk Hill overlooking the Tennessee River. Art lovers will enjoy a visit to the Hunter Museum, a beautiful Civil War mansion that houses both traditional and contemporary works from local and national artists. The Southern Belle Riverboat offers visitors a tour of Chattanooga aboard a luxury paddle steamer, and the Nightfall Concert Series brings the best of rock, pop, country and azz to the Miller Plaza stage.
Nearly as familiar as the Choo-Choo is the little red barn with the words "See Rock City" painted on the roof. Appearing all over the United States, these painted barns have proven to be an effective advertising campaign for over five decades. Rock City is a beautiful collection of gardens atop Lookout Mountain providing stunning views of the city and a profound break from the busy world below. Rock City is one of many popular sites atop the mountain. Ruby Falls is an underground waterfall located one-half mile below the surface of the mountain. The walking tour to the falls is a beautiful look inside one of the largest caverns in the Southeast. Point Park is the site of one of the bloodiest battles in the United States Civil War. Northern armies crept up the mountain under the cover of clouds and engaged the Confederate soldiers in a tremendous battle for the "lookout" point of the Chattanooga armies. For a non-traditional ascent of the mountain, ride the Incline Railway, a mile-long trip aboard an antique rail car that travels along the eastern incline of the mountain.
Chattanooga's North Shore is the latest in local success stories. Once a forgotten industrial site filled with warehouses and shipping yards, the area has been transformed into a tourist Mecca. Specialty shops offer everything from caviar to kayaks. The Chattanooga Theatre Centre, in its new home on the North Shore, offers Broadway-caliber productions year round. Coolidge Park offers miles of riverfront walking paths, cafes and the wildly popular Coolidge Park Carousel and Fountains. The classic century-old merry-go-round features hand carved horses and sleds restored right here in Chattanooga. The fountains include huge water spewing lions, tigers and bears to help cool youngsters during the hot summer months. The Walnut Street Bridge spans the majestic Tennessee River and connects the North Shore to Chattanooga's downtown area. Once a vital roadway for local traffic, the bridge is now only open to foot traffic and is the nation's longest pedestrian walkway.
Not long ago, the Hamilton Place area was mostly failing farmland. Today it is the fastest growing suburban neighborhood and site of Tennessee's largest shopping experience. The transformation began when Hamilton Place Mall opened its doors to anxious shoppers looking for an alternative to Atlanta shopping malls. The largest shopping mall in the Southeast, Hamilton Place is home to department stores like Dillard's and Parisian and specialty stores like The Gap and Eddie Bauer. Over 100 stores along with dozens of eateries and movie screens not only provide entertainment and shopping to local residents but to hundreds of thousands of visitors as well. From the mall you can drive for miles in any direction and find shopping center after shopping center accompanied by casual dining and fast food restaurants. On the outskirts of all this retail frenzy are many apartment communities and single-family homes. The convenience to doctors, schools and shopping has drawn many Chattanooga residents to this area.
One of Chattanooga's oldest districts, the Brainerd area is named after Presbyterian minister David Brainerd. Brainerd was a missionary to the Cherokee Indian tribes and founded the Brainerd Mission, the cemetery of which still exists. Today the Brainerd area is home to Eastgate Town Center, a collaborative effort of local government and private industry to turn the now defunct Eastgate Shopping Mall into an auspicious address for corporate offices and community service facilities. Missionary Ridge rises to the west of Brainerd and offers scenic views of downtown and is part of the Choo Choo Scenic Driving Tour of historic homes, parks and gardens.
History of ChattanoogaThe song that made the city famous may have been "Chattanooga Choo Choo," but the first residents were not train conductors; they were the hunters and gatherers of the Cherokee tribes. As early as 200 BC the Cherokee nation inhabited the area around Lookout Mountain and the Chattanooga Valley and called it Chatanuga, or "rock rising to a point." Creek, Choctaw and Shawnee tribes also inhabited the land, but the overwhelming majority of the population was the Cherokee people.
The Cherokee Nation established a government of tribal laws and clan agreements and maintained its rule for nearly 2000 years. However, in the mid 1600s, the first European explorers began to settle in the area, bringing with them diseases like smallpox that eventually killed over one-half of the Cherokee population. As European explorers gave way to Puritan settlers and eventually a new American nation, Chatanuga became a volatile area. The leaders of the Cherokee Nation decided that the best way to maintain peace was to assimilate themselves into the lifestyle and government of the United States. However, not everyone felt this way and the Cherokee Nation was divided.
Chief Dragging Canoe
As tensions grew between the white men and the Cherokee, one legendary War Chief took matters into his own hands. Chief Dragging Canoe, the fiercest warrior in the history of the Cherokee people, mustered 1200 warriors and traveled south to the North Georgia area known as Chickamawgee (now Chickamauga). There he formed a confederacy of like-minded Cherokee, Choctaw and Creeks. For nearly two decades at the close of the 18th century, this Chickamawgee Confederacy captured and killed thousands of White Men.
As his reputation grew, so did the legends of Dragging Canoe. It was widely believed this fierce warrior had supernatural powers. When he died in combat against John Sevier (who would later become Tennessee's first governor) his body was cut in half and the two pieces buried miles apart to prevent him from raising from the dead. His death did not put an end to the fighting, however, and the Chickamawgee Confederacy continued to wage war against the United States until the early 1800s.
The Trail of Tears
The United States would eventually prevail against Dragging Canoe's warriors and forced the Native Americans from their lands between 1790 and 1820. The well trained and better equipped army of the United States was too powerful for the outnumbered warriors. Throughout the years of bitter battle, the Cherokee Nation attempted to form a peaceful alliance with the United States. John Ross, the founder of the river landing which would later become the city of Chattanooga, was one-eighth Cherokee but fought with the white men against the Creek warriors. His mission was to build a bridge between the United States and the Cherokee nation and forge a lasting peace. Despite his efforts, the government had no interest in peaceful coexistence and forced the Native Americans from their homes. Thousands of Cherokee, Creek, Shawnee and Choctaw Indians died during the long journey between Chatanuga and the newly formed state of Oklahoma. This "Trail of Tears" to the Indian Territories was the darkest moment in the proud history of the Cherokee Nation, and one of the darkest moments in American history.
Battle Above the Clouds
When Tennessee seceded from the United States in 1861 to join the Confederate States of America, Chattanooga became a major strategic position for Southern armies. The city was a gateway to the lower states of the Confederacy and if the northern armies could capture Chattanooga the entire South would be vulnerable. One of the bloodiest battles of the Civil War occurred atop Lookout Mountain--the legendary Battle Above the Clouds.
The distinctive northern point of Lookout Mountain was a lookout site for the Confederate army. From the Point soldiers could view the entire Chattanooga valley making an attack virtually impossible. However, the Point was often covered with low-lying clouds reducing visibility. Union armies took advantage of one such meteorological event on November 24, 1863. Northern armies crept up the mountain under the cover of clouds and engaged the Confederate Soldiers in a tremendous battle. The Rebels were caught off guard and were overrun. The Union armies then flooded into the Chattanooga Valley and captured the city without warning from the Point.
All Aboard the Chattanooga Choo Choo
When General Lee surrendered his Confederate armies to General Grant on April 9, 1865, ending the war, the city of Chattanooga began the long process of reconstruction. Tennessee was the first state to return to the Union and received immediate assistance in rebuilding its cities. Plans were made to reconnect the railways of the former Confederacy to the rest of the United States. Chattanooga was still considered a gateway to the South and it would be instrumental in the railroad project.
On March 5, 1880 the first passenger train arrived in Chattanooga, from Cincinnati, Ohio. A newspaper reporter dubbed the wood-burning locomotive the Chattanooga Choo Choo, and the name stuck. Track 29 led to Chattanooga from every city in the United States and soon Chattanooga was a bustling center of railway activity. It became apparent that a terminal would have to be built to accommodate the needs of railroad companies and their passengers.
On December 1, 1909 several hundred people shivered in the cold as the Chattanooga Terminal opened at 1400 Market Street. The Victorian structure was designed by a New York architect named Don Barber, who won an award for railroad terminal design from the Beaux Art nstitute in Paris, France. The interior was fashioned after the National Park Bank of New York City and was considered the most beautiful structure in the South.
Over three decades later, in 1941, the Glen Miller orchestra performed a song titled "Chattanooga Choo Choo," which would later be featured in the movie "Sun Valley Serenade." The song became a hit around the world and once again the city of Chattanooga was in the headlines.
On August 11, 1970 the last train made its stop at Chattanooga's Terminal Station. The terminal was scheduled for demolition, but the public would not hear of it. A group of investors purchased the property and restored it to its former glory. By 1989 the terminal had become a major tourist attraction with two hotels, a museum and three upscale restaurants. Thousands of visitors tour the terminal each year to get a glimpse of the past and remember the romantic days when railroads connected a young nation, and when a song about a passenger train was sung all over the world.
The Environmental City is Born
Few people realized what a toll all those trains and heavy industry had on the environment surrounding the Chattanooga area. By the 1960s, the smog hanging over the valley was worse than any seen in Los Angeles, and the New York Times called Chattanooga, "The Filthiest City in America." People recall that their clothes would get so dirty just walking from their car into their office they felt as if they needed another shower. Residents of Chattanooga depended heavily on industry and rail service to survive. The pollution, however, threatened their survival.
The city decided it was time to pass initiatives to change the living conditions and restore the once-beautiful landscape. Harsh penalties were enacted on companies that did not control pollution and high emission standards were passed for all motor vehicles. By the early 1970s things were looking better and by 1989 Chattanooga was heralded for its amazing environmental comeback.
Resting on its laurels has never been Chattanooga's style. In the 1990s the city began to build electric buses to further reduce harmful emissions. The idea was a hit and soon cities all over the United States sent representatives to get a look at these zero-emission vehicles. In 1998, Vice President Albert Gore, Jr. declared Chattanooga "The Environmental City" because of its commitment to conserve and protect its natural resources.
Down by the Riverside
As heavy industry was forced out due to environmental constraints, the city looked for new ways to increase revenue. A group of investors believed they could revitalize the riverfront and bring tourists back to the downtown area. The riverfront was an abandoned stretch of 200+ acres on the north side of town. Using public and private funds, River Valley Partners began the task of turning an old shipping yard into a tourist destination. It worked.
Today, the riverfront is home to the Tennessee Aquarium and IMAX 3D Theatre, two attractions that draw millions of visitors each year. Movie cinemas, shops, restaurants, cafes, music venues and museums have opened their doors on the riverfront and drawn suburban dwellers back downtown to live in new luxury apartments and lofts.
Two hundred years ago Chattanooga began as a small landing on the Tennessee River; how fitting that the riverfront is where the city has turned to rebuild its economy and to look the future.
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