Facts about San Marino

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The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy; social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.

Geography of San Marino

Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
43 46 N, 12 25 E
total: 61.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 61.2 sq km
Area comparative:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
rugged mountains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resources:
building stone
Geography - note:
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines

Population of San Marino

29,973 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.8% (male 2,534/female 2,372)
15-64 years: 66.2% (male 9,316/female 10,055)
65 years and over: 17% (male 2,149/female 2,825)
Median age:
40.6 years
Growth rate:
Infant mortality:
5.63 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.71 years
male: 78.23 years
female: 85.5 years
Fertility rate:
1.34 children born/woman
noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese
Ethnic groups:
Sammarinese, Italian
Roman Catholic
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
Government type:
independent republic
San Marino
Administrative divisions:
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle
3 September 301
National holiday:
Founding of the Republic, 3 September (301)
8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
Legal system:
based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Federico Pedini AMATI and Captain Regent Rosa ZAFFERANI (for the period 1 April-30 September 2008)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Fiorenzo STOLFI (since 27 July 2006)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2007 (next to be held in March 2008); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term.
Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Judicial branch:
Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII


The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 2006 more than 2.1 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, clothing and apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food.

$850 million (2004 est.)
GDP growth rate:
GDP per capita:
Inflation rate:
Labor force:
Labor force - by occupation:
services 57%, industry 42%, agriculture 1% 
Electricity production by source:
fossil fuel: 41.18%
other: 0%
hydro: 58.82%
tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
trade data are included with the statistics for Italy
building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
trade data are included with the statistics for Italy
wide variety of consumer manufactures, food
euro (EUR)

SOURCES: The CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State, Area Handbook of the US Library of Congress

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