World Facts Index > Italy > Palermo

Palermo is the capital of Sicily in the province of the same name, and is located on the north-western coast of the island in a marvellous inlet by Monte Pellegrino, described by Goethe as 'The most beautiful promontory in the world', which dominates the western border of the Conca d'Oro laden with oranges and lemons. The city extends along the slope of the fertile agricultural zone famous for its citrus fruits, between Monte Pellegrino and Capo Mongerbino, the city turns inwards, and climbs up to Monreale, with its beautiful view, the glorious Conca d'Oro also makes up part of Palermo. The mountains crown the city, the gardens dress the city in green, the sea caresses it and the sky covers the city with a blue veil, this beauty conjures up the words of the Arabian poet Jahr Zaffir Place ones side on the water as if upon a silk divan. The sun shines upon the head, a halo of gold, beautiful, flavoursome fruit. In winter the trees have fire in their leaves and water in their roots. Palermo, Gods favoutite! It was here that God rested during 'the creation'! 'Oh merciful God, in days of scorn and justice, have pity on Palermo which raised up five hundred mosques to praise your magnificence!'

Wandering through the streets of Palermo is taking part in a giant parade of witnesses to several different civilizations intimately fused together. Individual centuries and periods in history can be seen in the existing buildings and areas; admiring these masterpieces is similar to losing yourself in something timeless and unchanging, the current inhabitants disappear, and are replaced by perpetual memories, traditions and legends.

The original center of the Sicilian capital was founded over the course of 2 centuries (from VIII-VI BC) the Phoenicians gave the city the name of Ziz (flower) and it was surrounded by a city wall. The subsequent Greek settlement allowed the city to develop towards the sea, defined by the Papireto and Kemonia rivers and included the port. It was in this period that the city was given its name: Panorma, ('Port of excellence' or 'all port'). The built up area spread gradually (mostly due to the work of the Arabs and Normans), through an irregular series of streets and alleys. Later, the Aragonese opened two long, straight main roads, created by demolishing many of the old buildings: the first road developed perpendicular to the coast and included Corso Vittorio Emanuele (the old Cassaro from the Arabic Qasr, the royal palace) and Corso Caltafimi: the other road ran perpencicular to the former Corso Vittorio Emanuele and stretches through existing Via Oreto, Via Maqueda, Via Ruggero Settimo and Via Libertà. The two main roads cut the city into four parts: Tribunali (north-west), Palazzo Reale (south-west), Monte di Pieta (south-east), and Castellamare (north-east) and they intersect one another in Piazza Vigliena, the well known Quattro Canti di Città (four poems of the city), an octagonal complex decorated by statues and fountains, known as the 'teatro del sole' (theatre of sun), because from here you can make out the sun as it sets. In the Bourbon period the wall was extended in a southwesterly direction, up to Monreale. This zone is known as the historical center of the city 'there are many buildings from various eras are situated here. They are proofs of the artistic history of Palermo, which stretches back thousands of years. The monuments left by the Normans are of particular interest, as they made use of the traditional Arabic shapes, such as in the Cuba, the piccola Cuba and the Zisa (from the Arabic al-Aziza, the glorious one) but above all in the splendid Palatine Chapel of King Ruggero II Royal Palace, famous for its incomparable mosaics. Amongst the religious buildings, some of the most notable include the churches S. Giovanni dei Lebbrosi (founded by King Ruggero I in 1072), S. Giovanni degli Eremiti, with its beautiful second century cloister, Martorana, S. Cataldo, S. Francesco d'Assisi and Vespro, while amongst the civil buildings, the Palazzo dei Normanni, once the seat of the Emiri, the Norman kings and the Spanish viceroys and from 1947 headquarters of the Sicilian Regional Assembly, the Palazzo Chiaramonte (or 'Steri'), the Palazzo Sclafani and the Palazzo Abatellis. The majestic Cathedral stands upon the ancient Cassaro. It started as an Arab mosque on the ruins of an early Christian basilica; at the end of the 1700s it underwent a wave of late Baroque changes, which irreparably altered several of the winter and summer views of the city. At the sides of the piazza are various palazzi that stand together harmoniously; one of the most well-known buildings is the Archbishops palace.

During the Spanish domination, suburbs flourished outside the city walls both to the north, towards the sea (Mondello, Partanna, Sferracavallo, Barcarello) and towards the south, on the road leading to Bagheria and Termini Imerese (Oreto, Romagnolo, Settecannoli). After Sicily was annexed to Italy and up until the beginning of the First World War, Palermo had a notable increase in building work; this work adhered to precise directives for new quarters with a regular 'chessboard' layout to the south-east extremity of
Via Maqueda and the citys main station is located on the parallel Via Roma. Major urban development has taken place towards the north-west as well as the lengthening of Via Maqueda, which took the name of Via Ruggero Settimo, the present day city center, on the outskirts of which, two major theatres were built at the end of the 19th century: il Massimo ' temple of lyric theatre and ballet and which has the largest stage in the world (as regards back drop and depth) and il Politeama. Along Via Libertà several quarters have risen, swallowing the old suburbs, up to the edges of Monte Pellegrino, there are new quarters at the foot of the eastern slope of the mountain such as San Lorenzo where the magnificent Parco della Favorita is found and the splendid Palazzina Cinese the Arenella and Vergine Maria, but also along the western slope until Mondello, a stupendous gulf that today represents the true summer tourist center and Partanna.

In the last century new quarters have been developed, the majority are on the west side of Viale della Regione Siciliana (the real ringroad of the city, a link between the motorways for Trapani and Messina), which make up the newer, but still highly populated areas of the city eg. Uditore, Altarello and Cruillas.
The Z.E.N. (which stands for expanded northern area), is a largely residential area, it is home to several important sports centers such as the Velodromo Borsellino and the new baseball stadium, but also commercial centers and palazzi of notable economic interests, such as Palazzo Gamma.

The Weather

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Avg. High 58 58 61 65 71 77 82 84 78 74 66 60
Avg. Low 50 50 51 55 60 67 74 74 70 64 57 52
Avg. Precip. 2.8 in 2.6 in 2.3 in 1.7 in 1.0 in 0.5 in 0.3 in 0.5 in 1.6 in 3.9 in 3.7 in 3.3 in


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