The nice thing about the neighborhoods in this town, however, is that despite the influences of time, gentrification, urban renewal and shifting demographics, most neighborhoods have managed to retain their charm and flavor. Another pleasant surprise is that unlike some cities, the attractions and amenities of Atlanta are fairly evenly distributed among the various neighborhoods.
Whatever you might be looking for, from high-end shopping in Buckhead to fine dining in Virginia-Highland to ultra-cool clubbing in Little Five Points, each of the city's districts has much to offer. As more and more residents and tourists flock to this capital of the New South, Atlanta's diverse neighborhoods stand as a fitting parallel to the rich melting pot that the city has become over the years.
The ever-changing downtown skyline is dominated by skyscraper hotels and office buildings, perhaps none more impressive than Peachtree Center, which serves the business community in both capacities. Most major chain hotels are represented, including the Ritz-Carlton, the Atlanta Hilton & Towers, the dramatically-sloping Marriott Marquis, and the Westin at Peachtree Plaza, which features the aptly-named, revolving Sun Dial restaurant on the 71st floor.
Many of Atlanta's most prestigious business addresses, such as the world headquarters of Coca-Cola, are downtown. The Georgia World Congress Center, one of the world's largest convention facilities, plays host to a never-ending string of trade shows and business expos.
Nearby, take a stroll through Underground Atlanta. Opened in 1989, this enclosed mall of shops, restaurants, and attractions also houses the most comprehensive division of the Atlanta Convention and Visitors Bureau, which offers information on activities and events throughout the city. Standing near the entrance to Underground Atlanta is the World of Coca-Cola, the soft-drink giant's popular interactive museum, where you can relive the history of the world's favorite beverage and sample Coke products as they are prepared in the four corners of the globe.
A short cab ride to the south will bring you to Turner Field. Built as a multi-use facility for the 1996 Olympics, it is now home to the high-powered Atlanta Braves. If you're lucky enough to visit Atlanta during baseball season, stop by; a large allotment of standing-room tickets are made available for each home game at the low price of $1.
Baseball's not the only game in town, however. On the west side of downtown, you'll find the 71,000-seat Georgia Dome, home of the Atlanta Falcons and host of the annual Southeast Conference Championship football game each fall. The Georgia Dome is also the site of the annual Peach Bowl, and was chosen in 1994 to host Super Bowl XXVIII. The much-anticipated Phillips Arena opened its doors in 1999, and now features Atlanta Hawks basketball and the National Hockey League's newest franchise, the Atlanta Thrashers.
Across the street from Phillips Arena, visit the massive CNN Center, home to cable television's first 24-hour news network. Tours of the studios are conducted hourly, and free seating is always available for CNN's live current affairs program, "Talk-Back Live." And, just across the street, be sure to visit Centennial Olympic Park, a 21-acre expanse of green commemorating the 1996 Olympics.
Atlanta's downtown area is a bustling commercial district by day, with a wealth of restaurants, department stores and tourist attractions. After dark, however, there are better, and safer, neighborhoods to explore.
Midtown's skyline rivals downtown. Mighty hotels such as the Four Seasons and Sheraton Colony Square stand side-by-side with the regional headquarters of such giants as IBM and BellSouth. The Georgian Terrace Hotel, which hosted the cast party for the premiere of Gone With the Wind in 1939, still stands proudly on Peachtree Road in the heart of Midtown.
Across the street from the hotel is the recently restored Fabulous Fox Theater, which features Broadway plays, opera, rock concerts, and movies. And just a few steps down Peachtree is the Margaret Mitchell Home and Museum, dedicated to the woman who wrote the Civil War epic.
Also on Peachtree, you'll find the Woodruff Arts Center, home to the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, as well as the High Museum of Art, which recently featured the traveling exhibits of such notables as Pablo Picasso and Norman Rockwell.
Known for its diversity, Midtown has long been home to a large segment of Atlanta's gay community. You'll see plenty of rainbow flags fluttering from porches of the beautifully restored Victorians between Ponce and 10th Street. Gay-owned and oriented businesses abound and flourish, such as the Outwrite Bookstore near Piedmont Park, and such infamous gay bars as Burkhart's and My Sister's Room. If you're game, buy a one-night membership to Backstreet, the gender-bending, all-nighter, gay/straight/other club where America's favorite drag queen, RuPaul, first strutted her stuff.
Clubbing is the word that best fits the nightlife in Midtown, and dress codes are often strictly enforced. Now and again, you'll even spot a velvet cordon snaking its conspicuous way onto the sidewalk, evidence of certain clubs' propensity to emulate the chic nightspots of New York. High profile spots like the Crescent Room and Innuendo play to the 20- and 30-something rave-techno crowd, while lower-key joints like the fashionably retro Leopard Lounge offer a break from such image-conscious posturing. A nice smattering of smaller and casual neighborhood bars are spread throughout the area, and most of the big hotel bars keep up a respectable pace.
The economic range of Midtown denizens runs the full gamut. From the mansion dwellers in Ansley Park along the northern reaches of the district to the seedy elements that haunt the liquor stores and fast-food joints of Ponce de Leon to the grungy-cum-preppy types that prevail around the campus of Georgia Tech, a broad cross-section of Atlanta natives will greet you on the sidewalk. You'll find yuppies from all over the city taking their lunch on benches across from Piedmont Park, watched at a casual distance by a small group of the homeless being passed by a highly-coifed septuagenarian on her way to the exclusive Piedmont Driving Club. Notched into a northeast corner of Piedmont Park, membership in this exclusive group is said to be among the most coveted and elusive in the New South. It is said, though not confirmed, that Margaret Mitchell was once denied a membership, a bit too nouvelle for their taste.
Stuck in among the many churches, restored and condo-ized warehouses, and pleasant tree-lined residential neighborhoods you'll find some of the best dining that Atlanta has to offer. South American fusion is the new rave at Loca Luna, while distinctly different Southern American is the specialty of South City Kitchen on Crescent Avenue. Running parallel to Peachtree, quieter Juniper Street is host to a long string of casual, open-air restaurants that draw big numbers for both dinner and happy hour.
The unquestioned social center of Midtown is Piedmont Park, a 180-acre expanse of green bordered by Monroe, 10th, and Piedmont Avenues. Featuring lakes, tennis courts, and numerous athletic fields, this is also where a great majority of in-town Atlantan turn out to walk their canine companions. Any given day will find literally hundreds of dogs and their fashionable leash-mates patrolling the grounds, and this is a great opportunity to see a wonderful cross-section of the area's population and the admirable harmony in which they generally co-exist. While you're there, stop by the Atlanta Botanical Gardens on the north side of the park; its forests and greenhouses provide even further haven for plant- and nature-lovers.
The legends of how Buckhead came upon its unusual moniker are varied, but most center around the killing of a large deer by a local hunter in the early 19th Century, and the subsequent mounting of said animal's noggin over a popular public house. While taste and public health ordinances have made such sights less common in recent years, the wild tavern tradition of the area is still in full swing, and most nights of the week find the bars of Peachtree and Bolling Way doing a brisk business. The pace on Friday and Saturday nights escalates to such a degree that the streets of downtown Buckhead become all but impassable, and several roads are routinely shut down to allow for the safe passage of the stumbling masses.
Despite the regular disorder brought on by the drinking crowd, Buckhead's downtown area, generally demarked as the intersection of Peachtree and Paces Ferry Roads, remains clean and safe, and is home to many fine shops, restaurants and day spas. Arguably, both the city's best steak and finest seafood are to be found within a literal stone's throw of each other, the former lodged on the ground floor of the tallest building on Peachtree (Chops), and the latter set off by a four-story, cast-bronze salmon (some say trout) that towers over Pharr Road (Atlanta Fish Market).
As you move away from the bars and shops of ground zero Buckhead, a growing battalion of high-rise luxury apartments and condos attracts the city's most prosperous up-and-comers. Gradually, small skyscrapers are beginning to dot the landscape of Buckhead's perimeter commercial area, as office and condo space is sold at an astronomical premium.
Some things resist change more strongly than others, however, and the tree-lined neighborhoods west of Peachtree, especially along Paces Ferry Road, live on as exquisite enclaves of old Atlanta money. Just a mile down this awe-inspiring stretch of road from the rollicking, disco-themed Have A Nice Day Cafe sits the august Georgia Governor's Mansion. Many local celebrities and the families of early Atlantans make their homes in the wooded estates scattered hereabouts. A casual driving tour through these gently winding backstreets has a tendency to make one feel like a rolling prop in a pictorial out of Southern Living or Architectural Digest. The paradoxical proximity of these bucolic streets to crowded and hectic Peachtree Road is at the heart of contemporary Buckhead, and is perhaps what gives the neighborhood such wide, energetic appeal.
If you're not in a strictly business rush (and your wallet doesn't mind), the central location and frenetic activity of Buckhead make it an ideal spot to stay. World-class hotels like the Ritz-Carlton and Hotel Nikko stand just steps away from the city's most elegant shopping venues in Phipps Plaza and Lenox Square Mall. And if the restaurants, shopping, and nightlife aren't enough for you, never fear. The Atlanta History Museum sits at the center of it all on West Paces Ferry Road, watching the progression, keeping careful records of Buckhead's latest transformation.
Virginia-Highland, more commonly referred to as "the Highlands," centers on the intersection of its namesake avenues, Virginia and North Highland, and concentrates its activity around three main hubs. Other than the few square blocks directly surrounding North Highland's intersections with Virginia, Amsterdam (a half-mile to the north), and Ponce de Leon (a half-mile south), the neighborhood has remained entirely residential. The Highlands' borders are pretty well defined as Ponce de Leon Avenue on the south, Briarcliff Road on the east, East Rock Springs on the north, and Monroe Avenue on the west. Most points are within easy walking distance of the Jimmy Carter Center in Inman Park, Emory University in Druid Hills, and Piedmont Park in Midtown.
Over the past 50 years, the prevailing atmosphere has gone from staunch middle class to economically-depressed to an avant-garde reclamation phase to a solid enclave of the in-town upwardly-mobile. Today, young professional couples live alongside the older entrenched crowd that smartly held onto their now-slumping, now-booming property over the years, with a strong gay showing thrown in the mix. Although not quite as extreme as the rarefied mansions of nearby Druid Hills (where the movie Driving Miss Daisy was filmed), the Highlands have assumed a certain snob appeal, and at least a modicum of the stern protectivism that goes along with it.
High rents have banished the starving artist crowd to less demanding landlords downtown, and in their place have come a number of galleries, representing the city's best mix of modern and folk art in such establishments as the Eclectic Electric Gallery and Modern Primitive on Highland near Morningside. Although not as glitzy as Buckhead or Midtown, and thankfully so, shopping is a casual pleasure, and quirky boutiques like Metropolitan Deluxe, the Common Pond, and Providence Antiques draw a heavy window-gazing crowd throughout the week. Near the Virginia Avenue intersection, the dusty and deliberately quaint Highland Hardware is a familiar reminder of simpler days.
Young and middle-aged professionals mix easily with a mild influx of students from the nearby university in the Highlands' bars and restaurants. Again, much quieter and more casual than the scene in Buckhead and Midtown, a vibrant nightlife thrums through the laid back atmosphere at such taverns as Manuel's, a political relic from the days when City Hall was located nearby on Ponce, Dark Horse Tavern, whose three-story deck provides a nightly microcosm of the drinking crowd's let-it-be attitude, and the newly-arrived Geko Lounge, a smart tequila bar that, despite itself, can't quite manage to force its Buckhead-ish, satin-shirt concept on Highland denizens, but peaceably persists nonetheless. A few blocks north of Ponce, Blind Willie's Tavern showcases some of the city's best blues acts in an intimate cabaret setting, while, next door, stout-mad revelers pound out rousing Irish folk tunes on the wooden benches of Limerick Junction.
Reservations are a must most nights at local restaurants, and even on a Monday you're liable to have to wait for a table on the patio at Dish, the area's hippest fusion joint. Almost universally small and intimate, Highland eateries seem to set tables for two with greater frequency than for four. Your options are quite diverse, however, as highbrow places like seafood favorite Indigo Grill and contemporary Southern-influenced Harvest rub amicable shoulders with popular beer and brazier joints such as Taco Mac, Neighbors, and Moe's & Joe's. Given the largely-residential nature of the Highlands, there's not a whole lot to see and do outside of rubbing elbows with some of the friendliest diners and shoppers in town. One standout exception, however, is the Fernbank Natural History Museum. Just off Ponce de Leon on Clifton Road, this world-class museum features displays that chronicle the geographical and natural evolution of the Southeast, many hands-on exhibits for kids, an observatory, and an IMAX theater.
The Highlands would be a great place to set up camp during any visit to Atlanta--for business or pleasure except for the dearth of public lodgings. Unless you can secure a spot at one of the neighborhood's scarce but universally charming bed and breakfasts, your best bet for greatest proximity is at one of the towering megaliths of nearby Midtown, or try the reasonable motels that surround Emory University a mile or so to the east.
Little Five Points
Touching on the old neighborhoods of Inman Park and Candler Park, much of the real estate in L5P is--somewhat ironically if not surprisingly--priced well beyond the range of the young rebels that flock to its commercial district. Many nicely-restored bungalows and even post-Civil War era homes line the peaceful streets nearby, including a good number of respectable bed-and-breakfasts.
Meanwhile, droves of what can best be summed up as the "alternative" crowd guard the sidewalks and street corners of the busy commercial area. Unchallenged headquarters of the local scowl crowd, you'll see a healthy cross-section of the young, rebellious, and rock-and-roll youth that Atlanta and her suburbs has to offer. Nose rings and tattoos are the rule rather than the exception, but don't be too fooled--or too intimidated--by the image. Although drugs and some of the city's seedier elements do show up, the majority of L5P's grungy crowd are students, wanna-be musicians and artists, and generally-employed residents of east side neighborhoods with a taste for loud music.
An annual summer street festival brings out in crowds from all over, as natives and neighbors come out to be reminded why they prefer the more tranquil annual street festivals hosted by both Inman Park and Candler Park. Music venues like the Star Community Bar present some of the best and most promising local bands, while the Variety Playhouse puts out a consistently strong line-up that covers the full spectrum of musical acts, from jazz to folk to hard rock and back again, including such well-known performers as blues legend Taj Mahal and the locally-favorite Indigo Girls.
You won't find much in the way of lodgings, and honestly, there's not much reason to spend the night. Similarly, good eats are plentiful in L5P, but fine dining has thus far eluded the rough-edged neighborhood. You can always grab a very good burger at the Vortex (which transforms after dark into L5P's loudest and most renowned tavern), or pull up a stool at the old-style lunch counter at the Little Five Points Pharmacy. Here and there, you'll find a few ethnic joints that are worth their salt, but the best grub within reach is at the Flying Biscuit Cafe, six or seven blocks to the east in Candler Park, where the masses line up outside on Saturdays and Sundays, waiting for a shot at the Cafe's famous omelets and brunch plates.
Other than some funky shopping options and a glimpse into the counter-culture, the most notable attraction in Little Five stands at the neighborhood's far northwest corner: the Jimmy Carter Presidential Center and Library. It sits on several hilltop acres of gardens and ponds, the site of the camp from which Sherman observed the burning of Atlanta in 1864.
Your shopping options are nice, if limited, representing an interesting mix of the commercial images of Little Five Points and Virginia-Highland. You'll find a few rag-tag vintage stores interspersed with such refined outlets as Verdio House for artistic pieces and Village Wear for funky fashions. The unabashedly gay Mary's is a diminutive send-up of the thriving alternative clubs of Midtown, and seems oddly out of place. The Fountainhead, similarly, seems mislocated amid its earthy surroundings, yet draws a consistent poseur crowd. Generally, East Atlanta's watering holes lean toward the local, blue collar crowd, best typified in the long-standing and unchanged Flatiron Bar. As the area continues to attract young money, dining options will certainly expand, but for now the best choices are the Heaping Bowl & Brew, an organic-minded mixed bag of regional delights, and the popular local eatery/hangout Grant Central Pizza.
Condominiums, apartments, and plush home sites are going up at a remarkable rate, almost keeping pace with the soaring prices. Still, the four miles that separate this pleasant area from Buckhead are enough to keep expenses a bit more practical. New hotels are being built as well, but for the most part, visitors are still relegated to the luxury accommodations around nearby Cumberland Mall and the big-business hotels of Smyrna and Marietta.
Following the money, great new restaurants like Canoe are gaining widespread praise as they take their place alongside such re-invented local favorites as the Vinings Inn. Shopping, however, still draws the majority of traffic, mostly to Cumberland Mall at I-75 and Windy Hill Road, but also to the Vinings Jubilee center, a collection of shops and boutiques developed to resemble a town square.
You don't really club here. You may work here, shop here, and more and more, eat here. But the Vinings will always be more suburban than city, in both appearance and attitude, which, it seems, is pretty much what they've been shooting for.
History of AtlantaVisitors to Atlanta often remark on a certain local curiosity: Even though just about every other street, plaza, or business establishment is dubbed "Peachtree," there doesn't seem to be a single peach tree standing in the entire city. The reason for the absence of these trees, simply enough, is that peach trees are not indigenous to the area. But the phenomenon of the peachtree naming mania stems from a confusion that dates back 200 years.
In the late 18th Century, the low rolling hills of North Georgia were still wilderness, populated chiefly by Native American tribes of the Cherokee and Creek nations. Most of Georgia's commerce and agriculture centered around the bustling port of Savannah and the fertile plains of the Southeast region of the new state. In 1782, military scouts moving west through Georgia discovered a small Cherokee village on the banks of the Chattahoochee River. The name of this settlement, as the explorers understood it, was Standing Peachtree.
Maybe. Historians speculate that since it was unlikely that the natives of this region had named their village after a variety of vegetation they had almost certainly never seen, the peach tree name was probably a misunderstanding. It is more likely that the settlement's name came from the pitch tree, a type of evergreen found widely throughout the region.
Nevertheless, by 1812, the budding American military establishment had built itself an installation on the site of the Cherokee village, which they happily named Fort Peachtree, thereby establishing a tradition of misnomerism that would continue for hundreds of years.
The small outpost in Northwest Georgia saw limited action in the War of 1812, and served mostly as a quiet stopover for those intrepid souls headed for points west. By 1813, work was completed on a trail that connected Fort Peachtree to Fort Daniel, a similar outpost a bit to the Northeast. This insignificant avenue would eventually come to be called Peachtree Road, which today is the main traffic artery through the heart of Atlanta.
Of New Rails and Bitter Trails
It didn't take long for the expansion-minded settlers of Georgia to discover the beauty and fertility of the area around Fort Peachtree, and by the early 1820s, more and more whites were moving into the region. With this new influx came conflict between the settlers and the indigenous population. While there certainly were instances of skirmish and bloodshed, the overall process was comparatively non-violent. The peace was largely kept by the willingness of the Cherokee and Creek tribes to agree to a long series of ever more disagreeable treaties, which granted more and more land to the white settlers.
Throughout the 1820s, this all-too-common process of treaty and renegotiation played out in North Georgia. The Native Americans of the region were unusually accommodating in their efforts to adapt. Tribes established settlements that resembled those of the white newcomers, set up trade, schools, and even embraced Christianity to an extent. But whatever they did was not enough.
In 1830, President Andrew Jackson ignored a Supreme Court ruling that the act was unconstitutional, and supported a Congressional bill that approved the forcible removal of the Native American population from their Georgian homes. In 1832, a lottery distributed Indian land to white settlers, intensifying the need to eliminate the previous tenants. This objective was soon taken care of.
The year 1837 witnessed a big swing in the fates of the two populations of North Georgia, in predictably opposite directions. Early in that year, the Georgia state legislature approved the construction of a railroad to connect the region to points north, and the push was on to clear a path. Native Americans remained the biggest obstacle to this and other expansion, and the solution to this problem was to be a bloody one.
As the weather turned cold, federal troops rounded up and interred the entire Native American population of the region, shepherding them into makeshift camps. When all had been collected, they began a forced westward march that was to stretch over some 800 miles, across the Mississippi River and into what is now Oklahoma. Of the more than 17,000 Cherokee and Creek Indians forced to walk the "Trail of Tears," over 4,000 perished of hunger, cold, and disease.
With the Indian situation no longer a concern, construction of the new Western & Atlantic Railroad proceeded full bore. Late in 1837, a town was founded near the site of Fort Peachtree that would serve as the Southern terminus of this beneficial new railway. The town was, rather poetically, named Terminus.
The Start of Something Big
The small burg at the end of the line did not stay small for long. Rail workers, settlers, and traders established homes and businesses in the town, which, in 1843, was renamed Marthasville as a tribute to the daughter of ex-governor Wilson Lumpkin. In 1845, the first train pulled into the station at Marthasville, and a new center of American commerce was born.
It was soon decided by the rough-and-tumble frontier types who peopled the town that Marthasville was an unsuitable name for a new center of American commerce. So, in 1845, the city was renamed Atlanta. The city was to thrive under this new name, and over the next 15 years, would develop into one of the South's most vital economic crossroads.
As trade, travelers, news, and money flowed through in ever-greater volume, the city grew accordingly. In 1848, Atlanta elected Moses W. Formwalt as its first mayor. Formwalt made stills, the devices used to make whiskey, and he beat out a candidate from the anti-alcohol temperance party with backing from the so-called Free and Rowdy Party.
As more track was laid throughout the South, Atlanta become connected by rail to almost every major port and trade center, making it a vital link between the resources of Dixie and the markets of the North. In the decade the followed Formwalt's rowdy victory, the population would grow from a mere 2,500 souls to a city of over 10,000.
War Comes to Town
By the time Georgia seceded from the Union in 1861, Atlanta's significance to the South and to the nation's commerce had grown beyond anyone's expectations, and before the end of the Civil War, it would be home to a civilian population of more than 20,000. If the young boomtown had been important to the South's economic well-being before, it became absolutely critical to her success when war broke out. Atlanta became the hub of military transport, keeping the Confederate armies in Tennessee and Virginia supplied with a steady stream of troops and munitions. As the fighting wore on, Union strategists turned their attention more and more to shutting down this critical backbone of the Confederate support network.
In 1864, General William Tecumseh Sherman set his sights on Atlanta, and entered Georgia through Tennessee with more than 100,000 troops. Confederate confidence that the city was safe soon proved misguided, as the Federal forces pushed back the defenders throughout the summer, culminating in the Battle of Atlanta on July 22nd. In a last ditch effort to defend the city, Confederate forces fell back behind Atlanta's fortifications.
Sherman's forces bombarded the city with artillery for over a month, killing many civilians and crippling the city's economy. When Sherman maneuvered around the city and cut off Atlanta's southbound rail lines, all was lost. On September 2nd, Atlanta's mayor walked out of the city, approached the nearest Union encampment with a white flag in hand, and surrendered. Before he did so, however, rebel forces set flame to supplies, munitions, and whatever else they felt would be useful to the enemy, effectively burning down two-thirds of Atlanta.
Sherman's troops occupied the decimated city for a month, ordered a full civilian evacuation, and, on November 14th, set fire to the remaining structures before continuing their march toward Savannah.
Of the 4,000 homes, businesses, and civic buildings that stood in Atlanta before the summer of 1864, only 400 remained. The rail system was destroyed, and what had once been the Confederate Army's primary medical facility was in enemy hands. Little remained of Atlanta, and even less remained of the South's hopes for victory.
Capital of the New South
The post-war period known as Reconstruction was a difficult period for the entire South, but it succeeded in Atlanta with better success than elsewhere. Despite the end of the war, federal troops remained in Atlanta for 10 years, and although their presence was long resented, it probably contributed significantly to the rebuilding process.
The valuable rail system was rebuilt and restored to service within two years, and once transportation was up and running again, it was hard to keep the city down. Atlanta became more urbanized and civilized, erecting theatres, schools, and even two opera houses. Industry took a new foothold in the city, employing many of the former slaves who had been relocated to Atlanta to help with the war effort only a few years before. By 1870, the city boasted over 250 stores, a horse-drawn streetcar system, and Atlanta University, which today stands as the world's largest predominantly black college.
In 1877, with a population nearing 37,000, Atlanta was named the new capital of Georgia. The 1880s witnessed the birth of Atlanta's tradition of hosting vast and various conventions. The crowning glory of these expos was the 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition, which was attended by over 1 million visitors during its three-month run. The Expo featured the Liberty Bell on display, performances by Buffalo Bill and his Wild West Show, and presentations by ex-slave and civil rights pioneer Booker T. Washington. This monumental success also resulted in the creation of Piedmont Park, one of Atlanta's most prized intown retreats.
In 1886, local drug store owner John Pemberton introduced something he called a "brain tonic." Meant to relieve headaches, this syrup derived of the cocoa leaf and the kola nut proved a hit with his patrons, so much so that Pemberton was able to sell the recipe to another local businessman a year later for a whopping $2,300. Oops. Ten years later, recipe-buyer Asa Candler had made Coca-Cola a household name, on its way to becoming the world's most famous soft drink.
The trials of the early 20th Century played out in Atlanta as they did elsewhere in urban America, with great city advancements frequently marred by civic strife. By 1900, the city's population and workforce was almost evenly divided between white and black, but the laws of segregation dramatically divided these two populations.
Although race conflicts occurred, Atlanta fared somewhat better than other Southern cities in that the movement for black advancement began sooner and with more success. As the most important city of the rebuilding South, Atlanta became a lightning rod for the success and failure of such movements. In 1900, Professor W. E. B. DuBois founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the NAACP, which would come to be the most important civil rights organization in American history.
The gubernatorial race of 1906 precipitated one of the most shameful occurrences in Atlanta's history. With Jim Crow in full swing and racial tensions high, both candidates based their campaigns largely in racist, inflammatory rhetoric. On September 22, white mobs took to Atlanta's streets, beating and killing blacks in parks, in stores, and even on trollies. After several days of mob violence, the official toll of the Race Riot of 1906 marked 25 black and one white dead. Historians agree that these numbers were grossly understated on both sides.
Disaster struck again in 1917, as fire raged through the Northeast section of the city, destroying 3,400 buildings and leaving over 10,000 residents homeless. City firefighters called in help from all over the area, but were unable to extinguish the blaze until homes along Ponce de Leon Avenue were dynamited to create a fire break.
Atlanta expanded its tradition as a transportation hub in 1929 with the opening of what would eventually become the busiest passenger airport in the world. Delta Airlines established itself in Atlanta that same year, and still makes Hartsfield International Airport its home.
In 1936, a book about the Civil War by Atlanta writer Margaret Mitchell was published without much fanfare, but went on to become the second best-selling book in history (behind the Bible). The success of "Gone With the Wind" brought much attention to the city, and summoned Hollywood as well. The film premiered to much fanfare at Atlanta's Fox Theater in 1939 on its way to becoming the largest-grossing movie of all time. The event was sadly marred, however, when black cast members from the film were not allowed to attend because the theater was segregated.
As elsewhere in the South, desegregation came gradually and painfully, complete with protests, riots, and violence. Atlanta's public golf course was desegregated in 1955, public transportation in 1959, but the big blow to segregationists came in 1961, when progressive candidate Ivan Allen, Jr. defeated Lester Maddox, an outspoken opponent of integration, in the mayoral election. Later that year, Atlanta's public schools were peacefully integrated.
Atlanta has been a focal point for American race relations throughout the years. In 1960, Atlanta native and civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. established his Southern Christian Leadership Conference in his Auburn Avenue neighborhood, making the city his headquarters in his campaign against racial prejudice. In 1964, King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. His Center for Nonviolent Social Change now stands near his boyhood home on Auburn Avenue within the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historical Site, which draws nearly 1 million visitors each year. King's tomb is located on the grounds.
Atlanta was the first major Southern city to elect a black mayor, voting in 35-year-old Maynard Jackson in 1974. Jackson was succeeded by Andrew Young, Atlanta's second black mayor, who went on to serve with distinction in Georgian Jimmy Carter's presidential administration.
Growth Growth Growth
Through the latter part of the 20th Century, Atlanta has continued to expand as a vibrant, vital international city. Standing as a shining example of the South's new place in American and international commerce, culture, and tourism, Atlanta keeps growing by leaps and bounds.
In 1966, the city became the first in history to be awarded a professional baseball and football franchise in the same year. The Atlanta Falcons of the National Football League made their debut that fall, while the Milwaukee Braves relocated and set up camp at Fulton County Stadium. Eight years later, this would be the site of baseball history, when the Atlanta Braves' Hank Aaron broke Babe Ruth's home run record.
In 1968, the Atlanta Hawks brought professional basketball to Atlanta. In 1976, the Georgia World Congress Center opened as the largest single-floor exhibit space on the planet, and, in 1979, Atlanta unveiled MARTA, a state-of-the-art public transit system. To contend with the ever-growing waves of new residents and visitors, Hartsfield International Airport underwent a massive expansion in 1980, and again in 1994. Today, Delta Airlines alone moves about 2 million passengers a month.
The national political spotlight turned on the city in 1988, when Atlanta hosted the Democratic National Convention at the Omni. In 1994, the two-year-old Georgia Dome was the site of football's Super Bowl XXVIII (the Dome would again play host to the Super Bowl in 2000), and the very next year, the Atlanta Braves culminated their decade of success with a win in the 1995 World Series.
In 1996, the world watched as Atlanta showcased the Centennial Olympic Games, an event which resulted in the construction of many new facilities in the city, including parks, dormitories, and the new home of the Braves, Turner Field, which opened the following year. In 1999, the brand-new Phillips Arena welcomed the National Hockey League's newest expansion franchise, the Atlanta Thrashers, and now serves as the home of the Atlanta Hawks as well.
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