Facts about Andorra

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AndorraFor 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Geography of Andorra

Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
42 30 N, 1 30 E
Map references:
total: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 468 sq km
Area comparative:
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Natural resources:
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Geography - note:
landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees

Population of Andorra

84,525 (July 2010 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.5% (male 6,710/female 6,305)
15-64 years: 72.2% (male 31,604/female 28,925)
65 years and over: 12.3% (male 5,113/female 5,231)
Median age:
total: 41.5 years
male: 41.8 years
female: 41.3 years
Growth rate:
1% (2004 est.), 0.89% (2006 est.), 1.899% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
9.32 births/1,000
Death rate:
5.9 deaths/1,000
Net migration rate:
6.6 migrant(s)/1,000
Infant mortality:
total: 4.03 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.37 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 83.52 years
male: 80.62 years
female: 86.62 years
Total fertility rate:
1.3 children born/woman
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran
Ethnic groups:
Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6%
Roman Catholic (predominant)
Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese


Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
Government type:
parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
Andorra la Vella
Administrative divisions:
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)
National holiday:
Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993
Legal system:
based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002) and Spanish Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since 30 July 2003)
head of government: Executive Council President Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA (since 27 May 2005)
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president
elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held in April-May 2009)
election results: Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; members serve four-year terms)
Judicial branch:
Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional


Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for more than 80% of GDP. An estimated 11.6 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its partial "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
$1.84 billion (2004), $2.77 billion (2005), $4.22 billion (2008)
GDP growth rate:
4% (2004 est.), 3.5% (2005 est.), 2.6% (2008 est.)
GDP per capita:
$24,000 (2004), $38,800 (2005), $44,900 (2008)
Inflation rate:
4.3% (2000), 3.2% (2005)
Labor force:
33,000 (2001 est.), 48,740 (2004), 42,420 (2005)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 0.3%
industry: 20.3%
services: 79.4% (2005)
0% (1996 est.)
revenues: $385 million
expenditures: $342 million
tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking
small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
tobacco products, furniture
Export partners:
Spain 58%, France 34% 
consumer goods, food, electricity
Import partners:
Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% 
euro (EUR)

SOURCES: The CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State, Area Handbook of the US Library of Congress

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